Domain 1: Planning and Preparation
Instructional planning includes a deep understanding of content and pedagogy and an understanding and appreciation of the students and what they bring to the educational encounter. But understanding the content is not sufficient; the content must be transformed through instructional design into sequences of activities and exercises that make it accessible to students. All elements of the instructional design – learning activities, materials, and strategies –must be appropriate to both the content and the students, and aligned with larger instructional goals. In their content and process, assessment techniques must also reflect the instructional outcomes and should serve to document student progress during and at the end of a teaching episode. Furthermore, in designing assessment strategies, teachers must consider their use for formative purposes, and how assessments can provide diagnostic opportunities for students to demonstrate their level of understanding during the instructional sequence, while there is still time to make adjustments.