The skeletal system is responsible for giving us support, structure, and protection and works together with the muscular system to move our body. Our muscles pull our bones, which allows us to move, jump, and run! The muscular system actually plays an important role in delivering oxygen to our body’s cells. Without the heart, one of our most important muscles, blood wouldn’t be able to travel around our body! Luckily for us, the blood travels through our lungs, where it drops off carbon dioxide and picks up oxygen that our cells are craving. Speaking of craving, did you ever know that the main purpose of our digestive system isn’t just to digest food? It’s job is actually to take nutrients and water out of what we eat and drink and then deliver it to the circulatory system where it gets delivered to the cells in our body. But none of these systems would work without the direction of our nervous system!
Now let’s get right into it with the skeletal system, where you’ll learn how our bones help us move and protect our organs.
The skeletal system has several important jobs to do in our body. It is responsible for creating blood cells, providing our body with support and structure, and enabling us to move. We have several bones that are responsible for protecting our organs like the ribs protect our heart and lungs, and the skull protects our brain! Bones cannot move unless joined together at joints. Ligaments connect our bones together and cartilage prevents them from rubbing together which would be painful! We are so lucky to have strong, powerful, yet moveable bones in our body!
The bones in our body are made up of four distinct layers. Each of these layers has important responsibilities and are vital to our day-to-day life. The outer layer of bone is called compact bone. Compact bone is solid throughout and enables our body to be supported. Compact bone is so dense that surgeon’s need to use a saw to cut through it. The next layer of bone is called spongy bone and it is lightweight and porous, which prevents our bones from getting too heavy, but still be strong. It makes up about 20% of our skeleton, and it’s found mostly in long bones, joints, and in our spine. The center of many bones are filled with a gelatinous substance called bone marrow. Bone marrow is responsible for creating red blood cells and some of our white blood cells. Bone marrow also makes platelets for our circulatory system. In addition, bone marrow stores iron for when our body needs it. We have two different types of bone marrow: yellow and red. We are born with red marrow, but it slowly changes to yellow over time. Finally, the outermost part of bone is covered in periosteum, a thin, fibrous membrane that covers all bones. The membrane is responsible for helping to create new bone in children and does the same when adults sustain an injury. The periosteum is the site at which ligaments, tendons, and muscles attach to bone! It also contains the blood vessels that allow nutrients and oxygen to the get to the bones! Knowing the four layers of bones can help us to understand just how complex our human body really is!
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Cartilage is an important structure of the body it is a firm tissue that but much more softer and flexible than a regular bone. There are no blood vessels in cartilage to supply the chondrocytes with nutrients. The cartilage is made up of specialized cells called chondrocytes. These cells produce large amounts of extracellular matrix composed of collagen fibres, proteoglycan, and elastin fibers. The ligaments are bundles of tissue that connect from one bone to an adjacent bones. There are basic building blocks of a ligament are collagen fibers. These fibers are very strong, flexible, and resistant to damage from pulling or compressing stress. The ligaments of your knee joint form the chain link that attaches the femur and tibia together. Just like in a chain they connect on to another. The individual links can move freely but they must remain in sequence and can't move apart. This
allows for movement of the joint while preventing it from dislocating from the bone. Ligaments can also prevent movement to. Recall trying to bend your knee in the opposite direction? Your knee also contains ligaments that ensure your leg can't bend backwards. These ligaments are important for maintaining the stability of the joint while it is in motion. A gliding joint, also known as a plane joint or planar joint, is a common type of synovial joint formed between bones that meet at flat or nearly flat articular surfaces. Gliding joints allow the bones to glide past one another. Gliding joints allow the bones to glide together, they can glide up, down, side, side, they can even go diagonally. A gliding joint, also known as a plane
joint or planar joint, is a common type of synovial joint formed between bones that meet at flat or nearly flat articular surfaces. Gliding joints allow the bones to glide past one another. A hinge joint is a common class of synovial joint that includes the ankle, elbow, and knee joints. Hinge joints are formed between two or more bones where the bones can only move along one axis to flex or extend. A hinge joint, also called a ginglymus, is a joint that allows only backward and forward motion. A joint is the place where two bones come together, or connect, usually to allow movement. The body has several types of hinge joints, some Examples are: your ankle, your wrist, your knee, your elbow, and your shoulder, but they're much more. The pivot joint, there are only three pivot joints in the human body: one in the neck at the base of the skull and one in each elbow. The pivot joint in the neck, called the atlanto-axial joint, allows the head to rotate back and forth and from side to side. Trauma,
infections, arthritis, syndromes and some diseases can cause instability in this area. Ball-and-socket joints are a special class of synovial joints that enjoy the highest freedom of motion in the body thanks to their unique structure. The shoulder and hip joints are the only ball-and-socket joints in the human body due to the need for great motion at the end of the body’s limbs and the vast amount of musculature needed to move and support such flexible joints. Now knowing all the joints in our body and learning about them that shows us how interesting our body is.
As you can see, the skeletal system has many important jobs to do! It allows us to stand up straight, move our body around, and protects our most important organs. However, the skeletal system can’t move our body by itself. It needs the help of our muscular system as well!
Muscular System: The Muscular System is a very important part of the body! It is more important then you probably think it is, because without it you wouldn’t be able to a lot of things that you can do with it! The Muscular is so important, it is your arm and leg muscles!
The muscular system is responsible for the movement of the human body. Attached to the bones of the skeletal system are about 700 named muscles that make up roughly half of a
person’s body weight. Each of these muscles is a discrete organ constructed of skeletal muscle tissue, blood vessels, tendons, and nerves. the muscular system allows us to move because of our muscles in the body. Without it, we would not be able to function efficiently. Without the muscular system we would almost be like a blog on the floor because we would not be able to move.
Voluntary muscles control the movements that you make, the voluntary muscles move your arms and legs around, if you want to run, or wave your arms around, or eat something it is like your brain is telling your body parts to move in addition, the skeletal muscles are strained muscle tissue that is attached to some of your bones, it is a composed fiber that looks like a bunch of dark and light bands bundled together. An individual skeletal muscle is considered and organ the skeletal muscle works with nerve tissue. Now we move on to the muscles contracting and relaxing! Muscle contraction and relaxation occurs multiple times a day, When you contract one part of your arm is getting shorter or it seems like it is, when you relax your arms and your legs and your muscles your fibers in your muscles slide apart from each other and the muscles get longer and thinner Muscles which move bones act together in pairs. This means that as one muscle contracts, its partner relaxes. Then as the partner
muscle contracts the first muscle relaxes again. Furthermore you need tendons. A tendon is a tough yet flexible band of fibrous tissues. Tendons are the structures in your body that connects your muscles to your bones to you can contract and relax (pull up and let go). When a muscle contracts it pulls on a bone causing it to come forward, the bone that it is pulling on to come forward it is a tendon. Now we are going to move on to the biceps and triceps, biceps is a muscle on your humerus bone and your triceps are on the bottom of your humerus bone. They are the two muscles of your upper arm. Your biceps cross both your shoulder and your elbow, your triceps are like they are on the back of your upper arm and they help you relax your arm, biceps contract your arm ( like when you are doing weights biceps bring your lower arm up and your triceps release it back down). Your triceps relax your arm.
Body paragraph 2: We are now going to move onto the second body, which starts out with the involuntary the involuntary muscles are not like the voluntary muscles, unlike the voluntary muscles the involuntary muscles do not control you they are like if you hit someone that is your involuntary muscles acting up. Furthermore we are now going to the cardiac muscles! This type of muscle is found solely in the walls of the heart. It has similarities with skeletal muscles in that it is striated and with smooth muscles in that its contractions are not under conscious control. However this type of muscle is highly specialised. The cardiac muscles is under control by the nervous system. Cardiac muscles are found in the heart. Cardiac muscles are specialized and are only found in the heart. Therefore we move on to the Smooth Muscles! The Smooth muscle is comprised of spindle-shaped cells that have no
striations and is found in numerous locations throughout the human body. They are made of thick and thin protein filaments. Smooth muscles are found in the digestive system These muscles are extremely important to help the body perform a variety of crucial tasks, and can be found in many parts of the body.
Conclusion: As you can see the Muscular System is a very important part of the human Body! The Muscular system does many things to keep us healthy and safe! Without it we couldn’t eat or run, or walk, jump, swim, I hope now you know the real reason we have a Muscular System!!!
The Circulatory system is amazing at what it can do! It is the system where we learn all about the heart and the blood cells!
Body Paragraph 1: First we are learning about the blood, blood is bright red liquid that circulates around our body and in our blood vessels so we can get the nutrients and oxygen we need. One of the functions of the blood is to act as the transporter of the system and of the whole body. We are moving on to the white blood cells, white blood are really important they help fight off germs and infections they also help fight off illnesses. Sometimes they need a little help so you get a medicine from the doctor and there are stronger white blood cells in there to help you get rid of whatever you have. We move on to the Red Blood Cells. Red Blood Cells carry oxygen and carbon dioxide, they also help pick up oxygen in your lungs and transport it throughout your body. Then after it did that it has it has to gather up all the carbon dioxide and and transport it to the lungs were you let it out of your body. Also did you know that there are about 5 million red blood cells in one drop of blood!! Next we have the Platelets. The Platelets are blood cells that help clear up your blood when you start to bleed. In order to stop the blood a bunch of these Platelets come together and stick together were the cut is. They stick together almost like a shield so that no more blood can come out. As the Platelets form together and stick together the attract more Platelets to come together. After that they form a scab. We now move to the Plasma. The Plasma is the liquid part of the blood. Approximately half of your blood is Plasma. Plasma has other responsibilities too it has to like it has to blood cells and other components throughout the body.
Body Paragraph 2: The blood vessels are a very important part of our body without it we wouldn’t be the same! Blood vessels help transport blood throughout the circulatory system and throughout the body. There are three different types of blood vessels in our body they are, arteries which help carry blood away from the heart, then there is the capillaries which enable the actual exchange of water and chemicals between the blood and the tissues; and the veins, which carry blood from the capillaries back toward the heart. We move onto the Arteries now (they are very fascinating) like I said before they carry rich blood away from the heart and they carry oxygen. They also deliver oxygen and the rich blood away from the heart to the tissues of your body! Veins are so cool with what they do, veins carry blood back to the heart, in order to get to the heart the a different kind of blood vessels have to close so the veins can carry blood to heart! The Capillaries help us do many kinds of things and work so hard! Capillaries are tiny tiny blood vessels that are as thin or even thinner than one strand of hair on your head! Capillaries connect arteries to veins. Food and nutrients oxygen and wastes pass in and out of your blood through the the capillary walls!
Body Paragraph 3: The heart is so important to the body! The heart's job is to pump blood so the nutrients and oxygen can get around your body so you can function and do everything we do today! In an average lifetime your heart beats and average of 3 billion times in a lift time. We move to the Four chambers of our body. The four chambers do amazing things. The heart consists four chambers 2 of them are atrai and the other 2 are ventricle. These help the heart do its job also the four chambers of the heart provide a multiple step pathway for blood to be first sent to the lungs for respiration and then dispensed to the body's cells to keep us alive. The left atrium it receives rich blood and pumps it to the left ventricle, it also it fulfils several functions like 1. atrial kick for the left of the heart/ 2. influences the rate of the heart/ 3. and has endocrine qualities. We now move onto the left ventricle the left ventricle once it receives the rich blood from the left atrium it pumps the rich blood to the body. It also is the largest chamber of the heart but since it is the largest chamber it has to occupy the majority of the heart's apex. The right atrium receives oxygen and poor-blood from the body and pumps it to the right ventricle. The right atrium also affects the heart rate and how fast or slow it beats and pumps blood. The right ventricle pumps the oxygen and poor blood to the lungs. The right ventricle ejects blood through the pulmonic valve into the pulmonary arteries.
Conclusion: As you can see the circulatory system is very important and without it we couldn’t breath or have blood circulate our body so we could do the things we do. The circulatory system takes care of us and helps us a lot throughout the day so inorder for it to take care of you and me you have to exercise regularly and eat healthy foods! Hope you enjoyed learning about the circulatory system!
The respiratory system is very fascinating. It involves the lungs and many other fascinating and interesting parts of the body in it. It’s main function is to focus on giving blood to the oxygen to carry around the body, to make sure we are getting the things we need.
Body Paragraph 1: The air enters our body by entering through your mouth or your nose. Your lungs fill up with oxygen and and then your blood comes and takes it to go around the body. We move forward to the nose and the mouth, with each breath you take air goes into your nose or your mouth so you can breath. Once that happens your lungs fill up with oxygen and once the oxygen goes around your body you breath out all the bad stuff. Then after that we go to the Nasal Passage. This is when he walls of the nasal passages are coated with respiratory mucous membranes, which contain innumerable tiny hair-like cells that move waves of mucus toward the throat. When you breath you also breathe in dust, bacteria, and other particles. And you breathe those in and then out. Forward on we learn about the Epiglottis it is a flap of cartilage that is at the bottom of your throat it moves back and forth if you swallow liquid the flap moves to cover the windpipe if you swallow something liquid and then if you swallow food it covers the esophagus. We move to the Larynx, the larynx is the voice box also, it holds the vocal cords so you can talk it also helps us swallow and breath. We move to the vocal cords. The vocal cords like I said before are held together by the voice box. When you talk they vibrate modulating the flow of air being expelled from the lungs during phonation. Along with the vocal cords is the voice box. The voice box has two names the voice box and the larynx. It is located between the pharynx and the trachea. It is a two inch long tube shaped organ in the middle of the neck. We move to the Trachea. This also has two names the trachea and the windpipe. The trachea connects the nose and the mouth to the lungs so we can get air to their. It is an important part of the respiratory system because, when a person breathes in, air flows into the lungs through the windpipe. Any damage to it is potentially life-threatening because of its role in respiratory system.
Body Paragraph 2: How does air move into the lungs? Air moves into the lungs by The diaphragm separates the chest and abdominal cavities. As the diaphragm contracts, it flattens out, moving toward the abdominal cavity. This action causes an increase in the size of the chest cavity, thus creating a vacuum. Air is then sucked in through the mouth or nose. We now move to the Lungs! The lungs is the part when you breathe in the air moves to the lungs and then the air goes back through the lungs to go to your mouth or nose. It intakes oxygen and removes all the carbon dioxide when you breathe out. We move to the Bronchi. The bronchial tube is the air comes through the mouth and nose and goes to the trachea from there, it passes through the bronchial tubes, which are in the lungs. We move on to the Bronchi, the bronchi has two names they are bronchi and bronchus. When a person takes in a breath of air, the air travels through the nose or mouth, into the larynx, then into the trachea, which is the main passageway into the lungs. The trachea divides into a right and left main bronchus. We now move forward to something that sounds the same but it isn’t. In your lungs the bronchi branches out into smaller parts called the Bronchioles. At the end of the bronchioles are tiny air sacs (alveoli). The next part is the Alveolus/Alveoli. the alveolar epithelium comprises two main cell types: the alveolar type I and alveolar type II cell. We move to the Exchange of gases. Gas exchange is the delivery of oxygen from the lungs to the bloodstream. It occurs in the lungs next to the alveoli. Network of tiny blood vessels called capillaries, which are located in the walls of the alveoli.
Conclusion Paragraph: Each day we breathe about 20,000 times. All of this breathing couldn't happen without help from the respiratory system, which includes the nose, trachea, diaphram and lungs. With each breath, you take in air through your nostrils and mouth, and your lungs fill up and empty out. As air is inhaled, the mucous membranes of the nose and mouth warm and humidify the air. It is important for everyone to know at least the basics of the Respiratory System. It will help individuals understand their body more and how to take care of it too its fullest.
The Digestive system is a very fascinating system. The digestive system is very important to our body because without it we wouldn’t be able to eat food or drink water and we wouldn’t be able to do as much as we could know! It is made up of many parts!
One part of the digestive system is your mouth, it plays a special role. Your mouth chews the food and covers it in saliva so it can go down the esophagus into your stomach. The teeth also play an important role. They cut and breaks your food into tiny, small bites and it grinds the food and makes it into a ball called a bolus so you can swallow it. The saliva plays a very important role. If we didn’t have the saliva then we couldn’t eat a lot of things. It covers the food you eat in saliva. The saliva is an acid in your mouth and your mouth makes it and it covers your food so you can swallow it. The tongue is an important part of the digestive system it helps you taste the things you taste because it has taste buds on it so you can taste things, so that means your tongue is not smooth it is like sandpaper but not as tough as sandpaper is. The bolus combines the food you eat into a ball to go down you esophagus into your stomach. It mixes all the food with the saliva so you can swallow your food. The term bolus is food that has been chewed and mixed in the mouth with saliva. Peristalsis is a series of muscle relaxations and contractions. It is seen in some organs in the kidneys and bladder. This process makes it possible for waste and food products to be pushed through the kidneys and bladder. The esophagus plays an important role, also. It’s the organ that takes your food to your stomach. The stomach is the organ that secretes acid and enzymes that digest food. Ridges of muscle tissue called rugae line the stomach. Our food that we eat and then it goes through the intestines. It is located on the left side of the upper abdomen. The stomach muscles contract periodically, churning food to enhance digestion. Digestive Juices are the secretions of the digestive tract that break down food. They include saliva, gastric juice, pancreatic juice, bile, and intestinal juice.
We move onto the the chyme, the chyme the partially digested mass of food that is forced into the small intestine from the stomach. The small intestine is actually bigger than the large intestine but it is thinner. The small intestine sucks up all the good nutrients of the food when it passes through. The villi is very interesting and important. It transports the food into the digestive tract into the bloodstream where they will be used for the body. The cells of the villi are known as the crypts. The villi absorbs the food and nutrients by the food that has been broken down in the stomach it forms a substance called chyme, which is a slurry of nutrients. When that slurry passes into the small intestine, it comes into contact with the villi. We move onto the pancreas it is a long flattened gland located deep in the belly. The pancreas is not seeable and you cannot feel it. The Pancreatic Enzymes are important as well as all the other parts of the body so now we learn about it. They help break down fat and carbohydrates. A normally functioning pancreas secretes about 8 cups of pancreatic juice into the duodenum, daily. This fluid contains pancreatic enzymes to help with digestion and bicarbonate to neutralize stomach acid as it enters the small intestine. The Gallbladder and Liver are very fascinating. The Liver is a large organ on the upper right hand of the abdomen. It does a lot of jobs like, helping digestion, store energy, helping blood to clot and breaking down medicines and alcohol. If you drink or eat something bad for you or something your body thinks is bad for you. The liver is the one that gets rid of it. Your Gallbladder is is located under your liver on your right side. Its primary function is to store and concentrate bile, a yellow-brown digestive liquid produced by the liver. Your Gallbladder is actually not needed! Your Bile is important too! Bile is released by the liver to be stored in your gallbladder. It helps your enzymes break down fat and fat acids it also helps with digestion. Bile contains mostly cholesterol, bile acids (also called bile salts), and bilirubin (a breakdown product of red blood cells).
Your large intestine is much needed to keep you healthy. When your food is going through your large intestine the large intestines’ job is to take your water and vitamins while converting your food into feces. Your large intestine is actually shorter in length than your small intestine is. It is thicker though. How does your large intestine absorb water into the bloodstream? When you eat food, it is broken down in the digestive tract and the resulting nutrients are absorbed. Nutrients, such as vitamins, carbohydrates, fats, amino acids and electrolytes are primarily absorbed by the intestines. Your Anus is important to. Your anus is the last part of the digestive system. It’s job is to lets us know whether the contents are liquid, gas, or solid. The pelvic floor muscle creates an angle between the rectum and the anus that stops stool from coming out when it is not supposed to.
By coordinating with the other systems in the body, our digestive system is able to ingest food, process the nutrients found in food, and eliminate the wastes. The digestive system plays a very important role in the functioning of the human body in that it regulates the energy breakdown for the cells of the body. Without the digestive system, the cells of the body would not be able to obtain the energy needed for proper functioning.
The nervous system is a very complex system! If we didn’t have this system then we would be able to feel everything that touched us. If we broke something then without our nerves we would feel the pain and it would hurt twice as much.
The Brain is very important to our body! The brain is located at the top of our head. It tells our body what to do and how to react. Our body sends messages to the brain to tell us what to do and how to react to certain things. The Cerebrum is important to help our body do the things we do. The cerebrum contains billions of neurons that control everything a person does like act, sense, thinks. If we didn’t have this part of the body we wouldn’t know how to react think or do things and we would be much different and do whatever we would want and not think about our actions. The medulla is important and it has two names the medulla and the brainstream. It is assigned to many different jobs. There is no single function of the medulla, but most of the processes controls are related to one another. The medulla is influenced by many types of unique receptors throughout the body that react to environmental changes.
We move to the nerves which are very important to our body they help us do many things that we do today and react to today. There are different kinds of nerves and one of them is Sensory nerves, they are vessels and bring of the peripheral nervous system that carry signals toward the brain in response to stimuli. The Motor nerves are another kind of nerves. Motor nerves carry impulses from the central nervous system which trigger muscles to contract. All of the voluntary muscles in the body are controlled with motor nerves, which means that any time someone decides to move, a motor nerve is involved. The spinal cord is very very important to it helps us sit up straight and walk and bend over. It is a tube of neurons and it runs up the spin and attaches to the brain stem. Some messages are carried from the legs up the spinal cord to the brain. The neurons are important just like the other parts of the human body. The neurons are the cells that make up the nervous system. The long stringy neurons are the ones that carry the words to your mouth. Neurons are the basic data processing units that tell our body things and sends messages if there is something wrong or if there is not enough oxygen to get somewhere. The Dendrites have a job too. They are an important part of the nerves. Dendrites are responsible for picking up information from neighboring neurons and transmitting this information to the cell body, also known as the soma. The Axons are very important too! An axon, or nerve fiber, is a long slender projection of a nerve cell, or neuron, that conducts electrical impulses away from the neuron's cell body or soma. The nervous system is a very complex and intricate system. Each part is so well intermingled and connected that there is very little room for error. There are 6 different structures of nervous systems.
Conclusion to the Human Body Research Paper:
As you can see, the human body is a complicated, unique machine that does so many important things. Not only does it help you live, but it also helps you move, think, breathe, feel, and communicate! Can you possibly imagine what life would be like if we were missing even one of these important systems? If not, maybe a few of these valuable concepts will help you understand better:
- The bones in our body support and protect, while our muscles pull but never push!
- In addition, our blood delivers oxygen and nutrients to our cells, while the alveoli in our lungs exchange carbon dioxide for oxygen.
- Finally, our digestive system is responsible for extracting important nutrients and water from what we eat and drink, but we’d never be able to do any of these things without our amazing nervous system!
1. What writing skills did you improve while working on your Human Body Research Paper? Explain.
2. What are some concepts that you learned about the human body during this unit that you think are important (not just interesting)?
3. What was the most challenging part of writing your Human Body Research Paper? Why?
4. What aspect of the Human Body Research Paper are you most proud of? Why?
1. I think I improved in my revising of my writing, and my capitalization and punctuation. I think it improved because we have been working on this for a long time so it was harder in the beginning than the end.
2. I think I learned a lot but the most important couple parts are the heart, and the lungs. I think so because the heart has to pump the blood to your body, and your lungs take in the air and let the air out but also they take the carbon dioxide out of the blood.
3. I think the most challenging part of the HBRP is taking the notes and putting them to our own words. I think so because the facts you get of the internet is really good and you don't want to change them. Also because sometimes you are just not feeling it or getting into it enough that you just want to keep on copying it and pasting it.
4. I am most proud of all the work I have done to put into it and all the hours and minutes that it took me to finish it. Also I am most proud of finishing all the systems on time. I am most proud of me doing this because in the beginning I thought this would be very boring but at the end I got a lot out of it. I loved it and it was much more fun than taking 6 tests on all the systems!